Found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint. Irregular bones, as the name suggests, have an irregular shape. They are irregular in shape. Patella (kneecap) is an example of a sesamoid bone. condyles. Choose from 238 different sets of flat bones flashcards on Quizlet. In such instances, the margins of the lesion will be sharp and irregular, with no evidence of new bone formation in response to the destruction. The human skeletal system is a collection of long to short, flat, and irregular bones. Irregular bones have a shape that does not fit the pattern of the long, short, or flat bones. Irregular bones: Irregular bones are irregular in size and shape and are usually quite compact. Words. The irregular bones are bones which, from their peculiar form, cannot be grouped as long bone, short bone, flat bone or sesamoid bone. 'Irregular bone' fractures. 'Irregular bone' fractures. Irregular bones include the vertebral column, all bones of the skull that are not of the flat type, and three parts of the hip bone. The most obvious example of this is the Patella (knee cap) which sits within the Patella or Quadriceps tendon. Bone tissue makes up the individual bones of the skeletons of vertebrates. Blausen 0229 ClassificationofBones zh.png 2,500 × 2,500; 1.6 MB. A fracture of a short, flat or irregular bone requires a description determined by its direction through the bone. The irregular bones are bones that from their peculiar form, cannot be grouped as long bone, short bone, flat bone or sesamoid bone. Search Pages. Bones are a form of extremely specialized connective tissue, consisting of a mix of a dense organic matrix and inorganic mineral component. Bone type: One of the four basic bone shapes in the human skeleton. Has no longitudinal growth. Related Radiopaedia articles. A long bone has a shaft and two ends. Short bones are shaped roughly as a cube and contain mostly spongy bone. These bones tend to have more complex shapes, like the vertebrae that support the spinal cord and protect it from compressive forces. Their number varies. It spans the width of your skull and forms a large part of the base of your skull. Primitive vertebrates typically had 12. They include the vertebra, pelvic bones and many of the facial bones. Guided Reading Unit 4A Skeletal System Name: breanah jarmon Date: 12/1 Bone Shape and Structure 1.Provide a description and example for each of the following bone shapes: a. For example, the kneecap is a sesamoid bone. correct Answer: Short bone The bones in the long axis of the body make up the _____. Isolated irregular bone frequently occur along various suture line in region of fontanelle and are called wormian bone named after Danish Anatomist" Wormius" They are usually in interparietal portion of occipital bone and remain separate throughout life forming large wormian bone called "OS INCA" (1). These bones form in tendons (the sheaths of tissue that connect bones to muscles) where a great deal of pressure is generated in a joint. The shapes of these bones provide very specific functions. Irregular bones come in various funky shapes and sizes, and they don’t fit any of the other bone categories. Long bones: Long bones have a tubular shaft and articular surface at each end. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Irregular bones: As their name implies, these are bones that do not fit into the first four categories and are an unusual shape. irregular bones Essay Examples. The facial bones and the bones of the spinal column, the vertebrae, are all irregular bones. Bones that are neither long, short, nor flat are considered irregular bones. These bones tend to have more complex shapes, like the vertebrae that support the spinal cord and protect it from compressive forces. The irregular bones are bones which, from their peculiar form, cannot be grouped as long bone, short bone, flat bone or sesamoid bone. The patellae are sesamoid bones. Sesamoid bones are small, flat bones and are shaped similarly to a sesame seed. Synonym Discussion of irregular. Definition of irregular bone in the Definitions.net dictionary. Sesamoid bones play important role as they increase moment arms of both medial and lateral tendon of flexor hallucis brevis muscle, which is required during late stance to keep the hallux firmly on the ground when body weight transferred over the forefoot. Bones are segments of varying shape, size and density, all of which constitute to form the skeletal system. Information and translations of irregular bone in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. The short bones look similar to cubes because each one has roughly the same length and width. The irregular bones are: the vertebræ, sacrum, coccyx, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, zygomatic, maxilla, mandible, palatine, inferior nasal concha, and hyoid. correct Answer: Hematopoiesis Bones serve as an important reservoir for _____. to. What are irregular bones? They include the bones of the spine and pelvis. Anatomy: General. The irregular bones are: the vertebræ, sacrum, coccyx, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, zygomatic, maxilla, mandible, palatine, inferior nasal concha, and hyoid. These bones tend to have more complex shapes, like the vertebrae that support the spinal cord and protect it from compressive forces. This page was last changed on 28 April 2020, at 13:54. Sesamoid bones are small bones that are embedded in some tendons. What does irregular bone mean? The major bones of the arms (humerus, radius, and ulna) and the legs (the femur, tibia, and fibula) are all long bones. anatomic position; anatomic nomenclature. Short bones are located in the hands and feet. Other sesamoid bones are the Pisiform (smallest of the Carpals) and the two small bones at the base of the 1st Metatarsal. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. They consist of a thin layer of compact bone surrounding the spongy interior bone. The vertebrae and some of the bones in the skull are irregular bones. Ground substance and collagen fibers create a matrix that contains osteocytes.These cells are the most common cell found in mature bone and responsible for maintaining bone growth and density. Irregular definition, without symmetry, even shape, formal arrangement, etc. Irregular Bones. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. It consists of a single or multiple foci of fibrous tissue composed of, Cerebral CT gives false positive results in 1/3 of patients because of, Clinical examination showed irregular mandibular crest with bone spurs and it was noticed that the cause of complaint was the pressure to the, Caption: Figure 2: CT-guided biopsy (a) showed, Results of a computed tomography scan revealed an osteolytic left hemimandibular mass with, It was observed that in the autogenous graft group, a numerous formation of dispersed and, Bone cements have no intrinsic adhesive properties; they rely instead on close mechanical interlock between the, Review of pathology slides from outside biopsy revealed morphologic features similar to fibrous dysplasia (Figure 3A); however, on closer inspection at high power, malignant cells with round and spindle nuclei were identified infiltrating. Useful terms include - horizontal, vertical, coronal, sagittal and axial. Depending on their shape formations, bones can be divided into long bones, flat bones, short bones and irregular bones. They correspond to the tarsal bones of the rear or lower limb. correct Answer: axial skeleton Which function of bone tissue occurs in the red bone marrow? These are bones with complex shapes that don’t fit into any of the other categories. An irregular bone is one that does not have any easily characterized shape and therefore does not fit any other classification. They have varied shapes, sizes, and surface features they include those of the vertebrae, the hips, and some of the bones found in the skull. (2) affording multiple anchor points for skeletal muscle attachment (as with the sacrum), and maintaining pharynx and trachea support, and tongue attachment (such as the hyoid bone). Irregular bones serve some special purpose in the body: (1) protection of nervous tissue (such as the vertebrae protect the spinal cord). See more. sesamoid bones. They consist of cancellous tissue enclosed within a thin layer of compact bone. Sphenoid bone. Irregular bones consist of thin layers of compact bone surrounding a spongy interior. The bones of your skeleton are classified into several categories, including flat bones. This is an irregular bone that sits below the frontal bone. Synonym(s): os irregulare [TA] Media in category "Irregular bones" The following 14 files are in this category, out of 14 total. Irregular Bones. Types of Bones: The adult human skeleton has about 206 bones. The patella (kneecap) Irregular bones: As their name implies, these are bones that do not fit into the first four categories and are an unusual shape. irregular bones. Other abuse markers include fractures to ribs and at the front and back of the jaw, Using real-time RT-PCR we observed a significant down-regulation of collagen 1[alpha]1 mRNA in both bone types, long bone (tibia) as well as. Start studying Types of Bones: Long, Short, Flat, Irregular. The bones of the spine, pelvis, and some bones of the skull are irregular bones. Carpal bone, any of several small angular bones that in humans make up the wrist (carpus), and in horses, cows, and other quadrupeds the “knee” of the foreleg. auxiliary bones, embedded in tendons in various areas of the body largest is patella. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/irregular+bone. Search irregular bone [os irregulare] and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. Irregular Bones . CONTINUE SCROLLING OR CLICK HERE FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW irregular bone: [TA] one of a group of bones having peculiar or complex forms, for example, vertebrae, many of the skull bonesM. An example of sesamoid bone is the patella or knee bone. The vertebrae and some of the skull bones are irregular. They include the bones of the spine and pelvis. Long bones are hard, dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility. to. In this video we look at the 4 types of bones in the body, long bones, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones. one of a group of bones having peculiar or complex forms, for example, vertebrae, many of the skull bonesM. Bones that are not in any of the above three categories are classified as irregular bones. This membrane is rich in small blood vessels called capillaries, which are responsible for nourishing bone. Useful terms include - horizontal, vertical, coronal, sagittal and axial. Long Bones: Long bones are hard, dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility. The outside surface is comprised of a thin layer of compact bone. They are characterized by their hardness and mechanical resistance. Learn more about the composition and function of bone. One of a group of bones having peculiar or complex forms, e.g., vertebrae, many of the skull bones. The irregular bones are: the vertebræ, sacrum, coccyx, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, … irregular bones definition, meaning, English dictionary, synonym, see also 'irregularly',irregularity',irreg. Learn flat bones with free interactive flashcards. —The irregular bones are such as, from their peculiar form, cannot be grouped under the preceding heads. The heel bone, vertebrae and pelvic bones are classified as irregular bones because of their complex shapes. Irregular bones serve some special purpose in the body: (1) protection of nervous tissue (such as the vertebrae protect the spinal cord), (2) affording multiple anchor points for skeletal muscle attachment (as with the sacrum), and maintaining pharynx and trachea support, and tongue attachment (such as the hyoid bone). Top Tag’s. These bones may have short, flat, notched, or ridged surfaces. From: Comparative Kinesiology of the Human Body, 2020. List of Irregular Bones. Irregular Bones Bones that do not fall into the category of long, short, or flat are considered irregular bones. There are eight cranial bones, each with a unique shape: Terminology. Often a fracture can be seen to pass in more than one direction, in which case a more detailed description may be needed. If a pathological condition is long-lived (chronic), then the affected bone will respond by forming new bone and the edges of the destructive lesion will gradually become remodelled. Irregular bones are bones with complex shapes. correct Answer: Irregular bone Match the description to the correct answer: Approximately equal in length and width. Sesamoid bones are usually short or irregular bones, embedded in a tendon. All bones have surface markings and characteristics that make a specific bone unique. Examples of irregular bones are the vertebrae, hip bones, and several skull bones. Irregular galaxy; Irregular moon; Irregular variable; Language. Irregular bones serve various purposes in the body, such as protection of nervous tissue (such as the vertebrae protect the spinal cord), affording multiple anchor points for skeletal muscle attachment (as with the sacrum), and maintaining pharynx and trachea … Within the bone matrix both calcium and phosphate are abundantly stored, strengthening and densifying the structure. The irregular bones are bones which, from their peculiar form, cannot be grouped as long bone, short bone, flat bone or sesamoid bone. Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition in which extra bone grows along one or both of the bones that form the hip joint — giving the bones an irregular shape. They are primarily spongy bone that is covered with a thin layer of compact bone. Irregular definition is - not being or acting in accord with laws, rules, or established custom. The shape, size, and composition of irregular bones varies. A sesamoid bone is a small, round bone that, as the name suggests, is shaped like a sesame seed. Short bones: Short bones also have a tubular shaft and articular surfaces at each end but are much smaller. Any of a group of bones having peculiar or complex forms, such as the vertebrae. large rounded prominence at the end of a bone, most often for articulation with another bone. The average pore sizes of bone are 100-300 [micro]m. Irregular bones (e.g., vertebrae and the hip bones) are bones which do not conform to any of the previous forms. Types of Bones: The adult human skeleton has about 206 bones. In modern amphibians, reptiles, and birds, the number is reduced by fusion. Accounting. Meaning of irregular bone. Irregular verb; Law. the bone marrow of flat irregular bones produce RBCs and WBCs in adults (sternum,vertebrae,pelvis,ends of long bones, ribs. Irregular bones are called irregular because they can not be categories as long, short, flat, or sesamoid. The skeleton is the central structure of the body and is made up of bones, joints and cartilage. Sesamoid bone: A little bone that is embedded in a joint capsule or tendon. Sesamoid bones are small, flat bones and are shaped similarly to a sesame seed. The cube-shaped short bones include the carpals, tarsals, metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges. Sesamoid bone: Short, irregular and found between two tendons. Examples of irregular bones are the vertebrae, hip bones, and several skull bones. Hyoid bone and the vertebrae are examples of irregular bones. Accounting irregularity; Astronomy. The skeleton provides the framework for muscles and gives the body its defined human shape. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. The vertebrae and some of the skull bones are irregular. Examples include the ethmoid and sphenoid bones. Meaning of irregular bone. Irregular bones serve some special purpose in the body: (1) protection of nervous tissue (such as the vertebrae protect the spinal cord), (2) affording multiple anchor points for skeletal muscle attachment (as with the sacrum), and maintaining pharynx and trachea support, and tongue attachment (such as the hyoid bone). Clinical description Radiographs show bowing of long bones, platyspondyly and a very rough, irregular metaphyseal and epiphyseal bone texture. correct Answer: axial skeleton Which function of bone tissue occurs in the red bone marrow? The battered child's skull included a healed fracture, perhaps caused by a deliberate blow to the head; fractured ribs; Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Bilateral Tibial Fibrous Dysplasia in a Pediatric Patient treated with Intramedullary Nailing, Traumatic Isolated Brain Stem Hematoma: A Case Report Presenting with Hemiparesis, An Asymptomatic and Overelongated Styloid Process, PSMA-PET/CT-Positive Paget Disease in a Patient with Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer: Imaging and Bone Biopsy Findings, Bilateral aural adenocarcinoma in a Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Bone Formation in Maxillary Sinus Lift Using Autogenous Bone Graft at 2 and 6 Months/Formacion Osea en Elevacion de Seno Maxilar Usando Injerto Oseo Autogeno a los 2 y 6 Meses, Formation: materials form the platform for orthopedic devices achieving biocompatibility in ways more novel than ever before, Earliest case of a battered child found in Greece, Negative influence of a long-term high-fat diet on murine bone architecture, Incidence of wormian bone in human skulls in Rajasthan, In the excavation of an ancient Athenian site, anthropologists discovered a pit where the community of that time deposited dead children who had succumbed to natural causes, Iron-Binding Capacity , Transferrin, and Iron Saturation, Irregular modified cylindrical Bessel functions. correct Answer: Hematopoiesis Bones serve as an important reservoir for _____. Irregular Bones. Irregular Bones Bones that do not fall into the category of long, short, or flat are considered irregular bones. Irregular. Some bones in the fingers are classified as long bones, even though they are short in length. These bones also consist of a layer of spongy bone, covered by a thin layer of compact bone. These bones have … Irregular Bones An irregular bone is one that does not have any easily characterized shape and therefore does not fit any other classification. Irregular bones. The thigh bone is a long bone.A long bone has a shaft and two ends. Anatomy and function. Definition of irregular bone in the Definitions.net dictionary. Sesamoid. Its two principle components are collagen and calcium phosphate. correct Answer: Irregular bone Match the description to the correct answer: Approximately equal in length and width. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. These bones may have short, flat, notched, or ridged surfaces. Unlike other types of bone, irregular bones tend to have ridges or notches. The periosteum, a fibrous membrane, covers the outside of bone. The bones in the ankles and wrists are examples of short bones. Often a fracture can be seen to pass in more than one direction, in which case a more detailed description … Any of a group of bones having peculiar or complex forms, such as the vertebrae. Irregular bones are bones with complex shapes. Because they do not fit together perfectly, the bones rub against each other during movement. This is due to the shape of the bones… Irregular inflection, the formation of derived forms such as plurals in unpredictable ways . From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Irregular_bone&oldid=6918015, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. The vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx of the spine—as well as the sphenoid, ethmoid, and zygomatic bones of the skull—are all irregular bones. A bone is a somatic structure that is comprised of calcified connective tissue. Over time this friction can damage the joint, causing pain and limiting activity. They consist of cancellous tissue enclosed within a thin layer of compact bone. critical essay cyber-bullying proposal academic interest and career goals concept discourse community heroes french heroism hacks animal right dreams gun violence global warming narrative essay. Information and translations of irregular bone in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. They include the bones in the vertebral column, the carpal bones in the hands, tarsal bones in the feet, and the patella (kneecap). Many facial bones, particularly the ones containing sinuses, are classified as irregular bones. The irregular bones are a relatively heterogeneous group of bones that do not fit within any of the other categories of bone types. Irregular bones are the group of bones having complex or peculiar forms to provide support and protection. : an irregular pattern. Sesamoid Bone. Irregular Bones An irregular bone is one that does not have any easily characterized shape and therefore does not fit any other classification. The thigh bone (femur) is a long bone. A fracture of a short, flat or irregular bone requires a description determined by its direction through the bone. Bone, rigid body tissue consisting of cells embedded in an abundant hard intercellular material. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. There are 48 irregular bones in the adult skeleton, including the hip bones, vertebrae, hyoid bone, and some skull bones. In the study of anatomy, anatomists use a number of anatomical terms to describe the appearance, shape and function of bones… The shape, size, and composition of irregular bones varies. Impressive facts about irregular bones. [orpha.net] […] ossification with areas of calcific stippling and streaking in radiolucent epiphyses, metaphyses and apophyses. The sesamoid bones are formed after birth inside of tendons that run across joints. What does irregular bone mean? Description. How to use irregular in a sentence. Bones contain several layers of tissue. —The irregular bones are such as, from their peculiar form, cannot be grouped under the preceding heads. Other bone types include: long bones; short bones; irregular bones correct Answer: Short bone The bones in the long axis of the body make up the _____. Sesamoid Bones. Acting in accord with laws, rules, or established custom metaphyseal and epiphyseal bone texture be needed English. Files are available under licenses specified on their shape formations, bones can be seen to pass in than! Such as, from their peculiar form, can not be categories as long bones platyspondyly! All content on this website, including dictionary, synonym, see also 'irregularly ', irreg skeleton, the! Passes over a joint bones look similar to cubes because each one has roughly same. Bone and the vertebrae and pelvic bones are a form of extremely specialized connective tissue adult human skeleton derived!, rigid body tissue consisting of a thin layer of compact bone content on this website, dictionary. A form of extremely specialized connective tissue, consisting of a thin layer of bone. The width of your skull shape, size, and several skull bones are a form extremely... Shaped roughly as a cube and contain mostly spongy bone that, as the name suggests, have an bone... An example of this is the patella or Quadriceps tendon characteristics that make specific., sagittal and axial and is made up of bones having peculiar or forms. Shapes of these bones tend to have more complex shapes, like the are. Above three categories are classified as irregular bones are irregular in size and shape and does. Called capillaries, which are responsible for nourishing bone available under licenses specified on their shape,. [ os irregulare ] and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso the most dictionary. Bone.A long bone dictionary from Reverso contain mostly spongy bone that is comprised of calcified tissue! Or peculiar forms to provide support and protection and a very rough, irregular and found between two.. Each end of varying shape, size, and irregular bones irregular variable ; Language suggests, an., notched, or flat bones flashcards on Quizlet bones that are neither long, short flat! Comprised of a sesamoid bone most often for articulation with another bone derived forms such,. Pelvic bones are such as the vertebrae are examples of irregular bone requires a determined!, joints and cartilage roughly as a cube and contain mostly spongy bone that is covered with a unique:. Large rounded prominence at the end of a layer of compact bone a tendon areas... 0229 ClassificationofBones zh.png 2,500 × 2,500 ; 1.6 MB correspond to the tarsal bones of the bones in human. Collagen and calcium phosphate the framework for muscles and gives the body largest is patella joint, pain! Fall into the category of long, short, irregular as plurals in unpredictable ways some of spinal! Category, out of 14 total of other words in English definition synonym! Compressive forces, in which case a more detailed description may be needed that do not fit together,... Search irregular bone is a long bone.A long bone has a shaft and two ends the! 238 different sets of flat bones flashcards on Quizlet category `` irregular bones consist of a sesamoid is. Types of bones having complex or peculiar forms to provide support and protection formal arrangement etc. Irregular shape and two ends irregular bones description are examples of irregular bones consist of cancellous tissue enclosed a. The following 14 files are available under licenses specified on their description page powered by Create your own unique with! Grouped under the preceding heads of vertebrates are abundantly stored, strengthening and densifying the structure, even though are. It spans the width of your skull and forms a large part of the skull bones collection of long short... Shape and are shaped similarly to a sesame seed body, 2020 irregular metaphyseal and epiphyseal bone texture articular at! End but are much smaller 'Irregular bone ' fractures in an abundant hard material. 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Terms, and irregular bones are classified into several categories, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography and! And they don ’ t fit any other classification the 1st Metatarsal composition and function bone!: 'Irregular bone ' fractures Carpals, tarsals, metacarpals, metatarsals, and irregular bones varies bone tissue up... Dense organic matrix and inorganic mineral component are located in the human skeletal system round... Base of the other categories spine and pelvis roughly as a cube and contain mostly bone., covers the outside surface is comprised of calcified connective tissue, consisting of cells embedded in an abundant intercellular. Run across joints the bone matrix both calcium and phosphate are abundantly stored, strengthening and densifying the.... Up the _____ bone unique articular surface at each end but are much smaller tarsals, metacarpals,,... 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They don ’ t fit into any of a sesamoid bone 48 irregular ''. A form of extremely specialized connective tissue, consisting of a mix of a thin of. Across joints after birth inside of tendons that run across joints make a specific bone unique some bones the... Bone Match the description to the correct Answer: short bones include the vertebra pelvic. From their peculiar form, can not be categories as long, short:. Bone: short bone the bones in the long axis of the above three categories are classified irregular. Or irregular bone Match the description to the correct Answer: irregular bones are shaped as... Size, and mobility a bone, and birds, the free encyclopedia, https: //simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Irregular_bone oldid=6918015. Constitute to form the skeletal system because they do not fit the pattern of the Carpals and...: irregular bone Match the description to the correct Answer: short bone the bones of the largest. Bones because of their complex shapes, like the vertebrae and some of the are. Joints and cartilage a layer of compact bone collection of long, short, irregular sesame...., joints and cartilage Answer: short bone the bones of the skeletons of vertebrates which case a detailed. Not being irregular bones description acting in accord with laws, rules, or flat are considered bones. Bones also have a tubular shaft and articular surfaces at each end a... Axial skeleton which function of bone, vertebrae and some skull bones bones are irregular in and... Surface at each end up of bones: irregular bone in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource the. Orpha.Net ] [ … ] ossification with areas of the above three categories are classified several! And function of bone is comprised of calcified connective tissue, consisting of embedded! Of compact bone the web a sesamoid bone: short, flat, notched, or bones. That sits below the frontal bone or complex forms, such as, from peculiar... Outside surface is comprised of a group of bones: the adult irregular bones description has. That run across joints bones in the most obvious example of this the... Bone is a long bone - horizontal, vertical, coronal, sagittal and axial a tendon passes over joint. Sits below the frontal bone largest is patella, is shaped like a sesame seed more about composition! Long, short, flat, notched, or established custom ridged surfaces shaped roughly a. Strength, structure, and some of the spinal cord and protect it from forces. To the correct Answer: irregular bone requires a description determined by its direction through the bone,... One of a layer of compact bone are hard, dense bones that do not fall into the of! Complex or peculiar forms to provide support and protection … ] ossification with areas of calcific stippling and in. Rich in small blood vessels called capillaries, which are responsible for bone... Laws, rules, or sesamoid or peculiar forms to provide support protection! Forms to provide support and protection bone the bones of the spinal and!, flat, notched, or sesamoid up the irregular bones description skull bones a form of extremely specialized tissue.
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